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Sativa, Indica, Hybrid, Ruderalis

An overview of the physical characteristics, genetics, and chemical profiles that can be used to distinguish and identify various marijuana/cannabis species.


Cannabis, a modernized version of an ancient word for marijuana, is divided into three species: Sativa, Indica, and Ruderalis.


A species or cannabis plant can be identified using its phenotype (physical characteristics), genotype (genetics), and chemotype (chemical profile such as cannabinoids and terpenes).


Cannabis plants can be either male or female, or both (Hermaphrodite). Female plants produce large, resin-secreting flowers with either round or pointed buds. Female plants have white hairs that grow from the preflowers, where buds sprout.


Sativa Cannabis

It grows tall and can reach a height of 15 feet. The leaves are long, narrow, and white. The plant grows taller with greater distances between nodes.

Indica Cannabis

Bushy plant that grows to be about 3-6 feet tall. The leaves are thicker and darker in color. The plant is typically shorter and bushier, with broad leaves.


Ruderalis Cannabis

Short, wild cannabis strain with fewer leaves and a low THC content. Although it is not commonly consumed, it is frequently crossbred with Indicas or Sativas to produce auto-flowering hybrids.


Modern Hybrids

Strains produced by cross-pollinating a female and a male plant. Height, leaf shape, and flowering cycle are all determined by the "parent" plants.

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